Surface Mining Methods and Equipment

The higher productivity for open pit mining equipment also lowers costs. The necessary underground equipment for maintaining productivity is more expensive on a unit basis capacity than corresponding open pit equipment. Furthermore, the large production scale and share number of open pit mines have provided the opportunity for manufacturing

quarry | National Geographic Society

A quarry is a place where rocks, sand, or minerals are extracted from the surface of the Earth. A quarry is a type of mine called an open-pit mine, because it is open to the Earth's surface.Another type of mine, a sub-surface mine, consists of underground tunnels or shafts.. The most common purpose of quarries is to extract stone for building materials.

(PDF) SME Mining Engineering Handbook, Third Edition

An open pit mine is an excavation or cut made at the surface of the ground for the purpose of extracting ore and which is open to the surface for the duration of the mine's life (Fourie, 1992 ...

Room and pillar mining - Wikipedia

Room and pillar (variant of breast stoping), is a mining system in which the mined material is extracted across a horizontal plane, creating horizontal arrays of rooms and pillars. To do this, "rooms" of ore are dug out while "pillars" of untouched material are left to support the roof overburden.Calculating the size, shape, and position of pillars is a complicated procedure, and is an area of ...

The pros and cons of being a FIFO worker

Jan 02, 2018· Mining companies often pay excellent salaries (although you do work long hours for it) ... What are the disadvantages of the FIFO life? ... This is an exceptional opportunity to play a key role in establishing a new open pit development, wi...

Sub-level open stoping - QueensMineDesignWiki

In general sublevel stoping is a high production, yet low-cost method. It is a very popular method chosen when open pit mining activities are no longer economical and mines move to underground operations. The key to cost minimization when using this method is mechanization.

Tunnel construction - Wikipedia

Tunnels are dug in types of materials varying from soft clay to hard rock. The method of tunnel construction depends on such factors as the ground conditions, the ground water conditions, the length and diameter of the tunnel drive, the depth of the tunnel, the logistics of supporting the tunnel excavation, the final use and shape of the tunnel and appropriate risk management.

All About Gold | The Metal and its History | World Gold ...

Gold mining describes the process of extracting ore – metal-rich rock – from the earth’s crust. And, as with other minerals, there are a number of geological processes that are involved in forming these ore deposits. Modern gold mining predominantly takes place in areas where there is a significant concentration of gold-bearing ore (ore ...